Karen J. Carney, Sarup R. Mathur and Robert B. Rutherford Jr
The authors use snapshots of one child's path to a troubled adolescence to identify age-specific risk factors that may lead to violent behavior Once these factors are identified, youth can be redirected in more positive and resilient directions.
Because many children may show aggressive tendencies at times, educators often wonder when it is appropriate to intervene and seek help for a particular child. It has been shown that the earlier we intervene, the greater the chance for success. If those closest to the child are proactive in the early years, there is less need to be reactive in the teen years.
Given what is known about the benefits of intervening early, the question becomes this: Should teachers and other professionals risk identifying troubling behaviors in a young child in order to prevent future problems? We believe that key people in a child's life should be willing to raise the issue of early identification, despite concerns about stereotyping, labeling, or stigmatizing a young child. By responding to the risk factors for future aggression that may be present at various stages in a child's life, adults may have significant opportunities to change a child's life for the better.
Gable and Arllen (1995) point out that there is no single explanation that accounts for a child's becoming aggressive and violent, but that such behavior results from a combination of variables, such as temperament, family factors (abuse, depression, psychopathology), and environmental factors (poverty-related stress). These factors can serve as early violence indicators in children as young as 3 or 4 years of age, and additional factors may accumulate as the child grows. Sprague and Walker (2000) refer to this progression of antisocial risk factors that develops over time as a pathway.
A pathway may be either covert or overt. A covert action pathway can initially involve lying and stealing, which may then lead to more destructive behaviors like vandalism and setting fires. An overt action pathway may start with defiance or disobedience, then move to bullying and fighting, and finally lead to more serious violent behavior such as assault, rape, or murder. Intervening early can help redirect a child's pathways in more positive, resilient directions, and may help steer that child away from a pathway that might lead to violence.
Redirection is possible when we are aware of the indicators of potentially violent behavior as they might appear in a child at different ages. To illustrate these risk factors, we include five “snapshots” of Raymond. These risk factors are summarized in Table 1, which demonstrates the progressive nature and compounded effect of these factors when they are not addressed.
|Accumulating risk factors for antisocial behavior
From Age 2
Low socioeconomic status
Difficult temperament (impulsive, irritable)
Attachment disorder, lack of early bonding
Family factors (abuse, depression, harsh discipline, uninvolved parenting)
From Age 4
Explosive behavior, multiple temper tantrums
Cruelty toward other children
From Age 8
Minor antisocial behaviors, ineffective social skills
Cruelty to animals
From Age 12
Rebelliousness, discipline problems
Substance abuse (begins)
Identified as LD, ADHD, EBD
Feelings of rejection, few friends
From Age 16
Significant vandalism, increased risk taking
Delayed moral development
Poor academics, cutting classes, discipline problems
Joins a gang; involved in fighting, stealing, property destruction
Substance abuse (continues)
Raymond's infancy: The potential of primary
In the first snapshot, Raymond is 15 months old. We see him pulling away from his mother, who is holding Raymond's baby sister, Rita. Raymond's older brother, DJ, is off to the side. Raymond's family is poor and his father is currently unemployed. Raymond is a difficult baby who has never really bonded with his mother. He is already difficult for his mother to manage. He is often left to entertain himself until he has made a mess, and then his father loses his temper and yells at him. His father is an alcoholic and periodically physically and verbally abuses his wife and occasionally his children.
This snapshot highlights the presence of several risk factors in Raymond's life that may serve as predictors of violence at a later age:
Low socioeconomic status (Farrington,1990; Loeber, Farrington, Stouthamer-Loeber, and Van Kammen, 1998)
Difficult temperament (impulsive, irritable) (Guetzloe, 1995)
Attachment disorder, lack of early bonding (American Psychological Association [APA], 1993; Seifert, 2000)
Family factors, such as distant and uninvolved parents, inconsistent and harsh discipline, parental substance abuse, and parental abusive behavior (Farrington,1990; Guetzloe, 1995; Stormont, 1998; Studer, 2000)
The presence of risk factors at this age calls for primary and universal approaches to prevention. The literature indicates that primary prevention practices work for 80% to 90% of children in preventing violent behavior at an early age (Dwyer, Osher, and Hoffrnan, 2000; Guetzloe, 1995). Primary prevention includes providing food, shelter, jobs for parents, childcare, medical needs, and an education that fosters prosocial behavior (e.g., talking out problems or respecting others). Intervention because of Raymond's risk factors at age 15 months might lessen his potential for future aggression. This would include offering his family the support of a comprehensive system of care (collaborative support of public agencies, such as social services, mental health, and public health agencies). Providing these services to families like Raymond's helps children build a stronger foundation in their early years, which may well diminish the possibility of future violent behavior.
Raymond in preschool: Negative behavior can
The next snapshot of Raymond shows him as a 4-year-old preschool student. In this picture, taken on the playground, he is climbing up the slide backwards. No other children are near him. Other children tend to shy away from Raymond since he is often mean to them and often explodes with anger. He is quite impulsive as well, making it hard for him to focus on class activities. He often refuses to comply with teacher requests and spends most of his time isolated from others.
In addition to the pre-existing risk factors, the indicators at this age become more serious and complex:
Explosive behavior, multiple temper tantrums (APA, 1993; Dwyer, Osher, and Warger, 1998; Guetzloe, 1995; Seifert, 2000)
Impulsivity (APA,1993; Famngton, 1990; Guetzloe,1995; Farrington, Stouthamer-Loeber, and Van Kammen, 1998)
Noncompliance (Rutherford and Nelson, 1995)
Cruelty toward other children (APA, 1993)
It is vital to address these risk indicators during preschool years in order to prevent a child like Raymond from developing more stable patterns of aggression.
By the age of 4, children benefit from early school screening and intervention (Cornell, 1999; Dwyer et al., 1998; Golly, Stiller, and Walker, 1998; Guetzloe, 1995; Montague, Bergeron, and Lago-Delello,1997). Early intervention, as early as preschool, is the best method of redirecting the emerging negative behavior of children who commit aggressive acts (Seifert, 2000). Walker, Colvin, and Ramsey (1995) state that children with antisocial behaviors can be identified accurately at age 3 or 4. At this age, violent or antisocial behavior can be changed because it is a learned behavior (American Psychological Association and National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1999). This is the time for closer supervision of such children, positive behavioral interventions [such as behavior modification, counseling, environmental interventions (Guetzloe, 1999)], fostering prosocial behavior, and family-centered interventions.
Raymond in third grade: Multiple
interventions are required
Eight-year-old Raymond, shown in his next snapshot with a black eye and scraped knuckles, is riding his bike. Siblings DJ and Rita play catch in the background. Now in the third grade, Raymond is already struggling academically, mostly because he cannot stay focused on his schoolwork. His impulsive and explosive behavior also causes trouble with his classmates and his teachers, and he has few friends. He was in a fight with a younger boy, which is how he got his black eye and scraped knuckles. His brother and sister also avoid him, and his parents continue to be inconsistent with their discipline. Last summer Raymond drowned the family gerbil, saying he was trying to see if it could swim.
As indicated in this snapshot, risk factors include a number of academic and social skill difficulties. Specific indicators are as follows:
Academic failure (APA, 1993; Office of Safe and DrugFree Schools [SDFS], 1999; Quinn, Mathur, and Rutherford, 1995; Rutherford and Nelson, 1995; Seifert, 2000)
Bullying (Hoover and Oliver, 1996; Ross, 1996)
Minor antisocial behaviors, ineffective interpersonal skills (APA, 1993; Farrington, 1990; Loeber and Farrington, 1998; Seifert, 2000)
Cruelty to animals (APA, 1993; Seifert, 2000; Studer, 2000)
Raymond requires more intervention at this stage in his life. More than primary intervention, he is in need of secondary intervention. Included at this level of treatment are proactive strategies for behavior management, environmental interventions, and direct instruction in developing prosocial skills (Guetzloe, 1999). Raymond needs redirecting, positive behavioral supports (Office of Special Education Programs, 2000), and instruction in developing positive behaviors and social skills to prevent further escalation of aggressive behaviors (Seifert, 2000). Through direct instruction in social skills and anger management strategies, habits of aggression and violence can be changed (American Psychological Association and National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1999).
Universal schoolwide practices are also important. One type of practice includes positive behavioral interventions and supports (Sugai and Horner, 1999), which teach and reinforce appropriate behavior throughout the school day. In addition, delivering appropriate and nondiscriminatory consequences (Dwyer et al., 1998) and having high academic expectations (Kamps and Tankersley, 1996) are essential schoolwide practices. Finally, resiliency supports (Benard,1997; Bloom, 1996; Finley, 1994), which teach protective behaviors such as problem solving, impulse control, and a sense of humor, are designed to strengthen a child's resistance to stress and are effective strategies for all youth. Walker, Colvin, and Ramsey (1995) note that antisocial behavior that is not changed by the end of third grade cannot be cured. It can only be managed with appropriate supports and continuing interventions.
Raymond at 12: Antisocial behavior escalates
This snapshot shows Raymond at age 12, reading violent comics in his bedroom. His room is messy, and there is a cigarette pack on the floor. The papers thrown near the waste paper basket are his homework. Raymond was home for this picture because he was suspended from school for 3 days for swearing at his teacher and overturning a desk. He has had many discipline referrals at school. He was tested last year for learning disabilities and was placed in a resource room for 1 hour per day. He still does poorly in school. He has few friends, and claims he would rather just play alone than interact with others.
The escalation of antisocial behaviors at this age is evident from the risk factors identified in the youth aggression and violence literature:
Verbal aggression (Guetzloe, 1995)
Rebelliousness, discipline problems (Dwyer et al., 1998; Seifert, 2000)
Substance abuse (Guetzloe, 1995)
Identified as learning disabled (LD), as having attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD), or as emotional/ behavior disordered (EBD) (Hehir, 1999; Sprague and Walker, 2000)
Feelings of rejection, few friends (APA, 1993; Dwyer et al., 1998; Seifert, 2000)
Raymond was in a resource room at school by age 10, but the focus was on his low academic skills rather than on his antisocial behavior. Relatively minor examples of aggressive and coercive acts in the home and school may be early signs of adolescent delinquent behavior (Feil, Walker, and Severson, 1995). Two types of interventions are available to manage aggressive behaviors in school. One involves rearranging contingencies for aggression through behavior enhancement (supporting a student’s positive behavior) and behavior reduction techniques (modifying a student’s negative behavior) (Mathur, Quinn, and Rutherford,1995). The other involves teaching prosocial or replacement skills that are incompatible with antisocial acts (Rutherford, Quinn, and Mathur,1995). This could include encouraging youth to engage in problem-solving strategies when upset, rather than fighting. At this age, Raymond would benefit from teacher-mediated consequences for his aggressive and violent behavior, and from instruction in alternative behaviors such as positive social skills, anger management skills, and aggression replacement skills (Rutherford and Nelson, 1995). These would be more effective if Raymond also received an integrated treatment approach to support his family and provide him with mental health services.
Raymond at 16: What is and what might have
In this snapshot, 16-year-old Raymond is with his friends. He is grinning at the camera and making an obscene gesture. He has recently been caught skipping school and shoplifting with other boys who have been in trouble with the law. Raymond goes to court next week to meet with the judge about his shoplifting. Although they have not been caught, he and his friends have assaulted students from other schools half a dozen times. He frequently misses classes and has no plans for the future. His parents know he drinks all weekend, either alone or with his friends.
The risk factors at this stage are all too familiar, and they clearly indicate the path Raymond was taking because the risk factors represented by his antisocial behaviors in the past had not been identified earlier:
Significant vandalism, increased risk taking (APA, 1993)
Delayed moral development (Seifert, 2000)
Poor academics, frequent cutting of classes, discipline problems (APA, 1993; Dwyer et al., 1998; SDFS, 1999)
Joining a gang; becoming involved in fighting, stealing, destruction of property (APA, 1993; Dwyer et al., 1998; Guetzloe, 1995; SDFS, 1999)
Substance abuse (APA, 1993; Dwyer et al., 1998; SDFS, 1999)
Raymond seems to have been following an overt pathway even as a 4-year-old. His album of snapshots shows a child who became more and more isolated from the positive parts of life. He needed comprehensive and timely solutions to address the many risk factors that may have led to his increasingly aggressive behavior. He needed to have supportive relationships with others that would lead to more positive consequences in his life. He needed to develop positive interpersonal skills and intervention strategies that would have helped him feel supported and reinforced rather than criticized, punished, and separated. Many children may show aggressive tendencies, but not all of them will walk down a pathway toward aggression and violence. How do we know which children are at risk and when it is appropriate to intervene? Raymond's brother and sister did not follow the same overt pathway as Raymond. The answer is that everyone has to be aware of the risk factors for problem behavior in children. The earlier the intervention occurs, the greater the chance for success in redirecting the behavior. Although Raymond's early profile did not guarantee that he was on a one-way track to serious problem behavior, there were indications that he was headed in that direction. Sprague and Walker (2000) comment that an early pattern of antisocial behavior is like a virus that lowers the immune system, so that a child becomes vulnerable to a host of other risk factors over time. The snapshots of Raymond show this vulnerability.
Successful early interventions
Although Raymond's snapshots show a steady increase in his problem behaviors because they were not identified and treated early, there are pictures of other children who have been helped by early intervention. Manuel’s early characteristics were similar to Raymond's, but his preschool used an early screening instrument [e.g., Early Screening Project, Walker, Severson, and Feil (1995)], which identified his behavioral problems and needs, and his family received collaborative community services (Forness, Kavale, MacMillan, Asarnow, and Duncan, 1996). Manuel’s kindergarten picture shows a happy, successful child eagerly involved in a whole-group classroom activity.
Rose’s family photos took a positive turn when she was in first grade. Her school identified her as in need of help for behavioral problems, and she was supported by her teacher, who took a special interest in her. Instead of punishing Rose for fighting and other class misbehavior, the teacher taught Rose prosocial behaviors to help her deal more positively and effectively with her classmates. Rose’s counselor also helped her learn positive peer-to-peer social skills. In addition, her family received support from a local social service and mental health agency that focused on providing wraparound services (comprehensive services delivered collaboratively to address an individual’s needs) for children in her neighborhood in need of special help. Many success stories begin when one person cares deeply and bonds with a child whose behavioral problems are identified early on.
Taking the risk
There is abundant research literature on strategies to reduce and ameliorate aggressive behaviors in children (Dwyer et al., 2000; Forness et al., 1996; Sprague and Walker, 2000) and to promote resiliency (Benard,1997; Bloom, 1996; Finley,1994). The American Psychological Association and the National Association for the Education Of Young Children NAEYC have developed a program called Reason to Hope to prevent violence in early childhood by encouraging caring adults to mentor and support young children. But first the key people in a child's life must recognize the risk factors and be willing to acknowledge the importance of dealing with the behaviors that result from those risk factors. To prevent an action from occurring, one must first predict that the action could occur and then take the steps necessary to stop it. The risk factors for violent behavior are known. The place to begin, then, is early identification of children exhibiting these indicators. In light of the potential for positively redirecting young lives, early identification is a risk worth taking.
American Psychological Association. (1993). Potential warning signs for violence in children. Elk Grove Village, IL: Author.
American Psychological Association and National Association for the Education of Young Children. (1999). Reason to hope. A psychosocial perspective on violence and youth. Online. Available: http://www.apa.org/pi/pii/hope.html.
Benard, B. (1997). Turning it around for all youth: From risk to resilience. New York: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 412 309)
Bloom, M. (1996). Primary prevention and resilience: Changing paradigms and changing lives. In R. Hampton, P. Jenkins, and T. Gullotta (Eds.), Preventing violence in America (pp. 87-114). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Cornell, D. G. (1999). What works in youth violence prevention. Working paper for the Virginia Youth Violence Project, April 27, 1999. Online. Available: http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/youthvio/.
Dwyer, K. E, Osher, D., and Hoffman, C. C: (2000). Creating responsive schools: Contextualizing “Early warning, timely response.” Exceptional Children, 66, 3. pp. 347-365.
Dwyer, K. P, Osher, D., and Warger, C. (1998). Early warning, timely response: A guide to safe schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Farrington, D. E (1990). Implications of criminal career research for the prevention of offending. Journal of Adolescence, 13, 2. pp. 93-113.
Feil, E. G., Walker, H. M., and Severson, H. H. (1995). The early screening project for young children with behavior problems. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 3, 4. pp. 194-202.
Finley, M. (1994). Cultivating resilience: An overview far rural educators and parents. Charleston, WV: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 372 904)
Forness, S. R., Kavale, K. A., MacMillan, D. L., Asarnow, J. R., and Duncan, B. B. (1996). Early detection and prevention of emotional or behavioral disorders: Developmental aspects of systems of care. Behavioral Disorders, 21, 3. pp. 226-240.
Gable, R. A., and Arllen, N. L. (1995). An education imperiled: The challenge of aggressive and violent behavior in the schools. In L. M. Bullock and R. A. Gable (Eds.), Perspectives on school aggression and violence (pp. 26-30). Reston, VA: Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders.
Golly, A. M., Stiller, B., and Walker, H. M. (1998). First step to success: Replication and social validation of an early intervention program. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 6, 4. pp. 243-250.
Guetzloe, E. C. (1995). Aggression and violence in the schools. In L. M. Bullock and R. A. Gable (Eds.), Perspectives on school aggression and violence (pp. 5-8). Reston, VA: Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders.
Guetzloe, E. C. (1999). Preventing violence in children and adolescents: What’s new, what works, and what doesn’t. Presentation at 23rd Annual TECBD National Conference, Scottsdale, AZ, November 1999.
Hehir, T. E (1999). Begin early, end well. Journal
of Special Education Leadership, 12, 2. pp. 31-36.
Hoover, J. H., and Oliver, R. (1996). The bullying prevention handbook: A guide for principals, teachers, and counselors. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.
Kamps, D. M., and Tankersley, M. (1996). Prevention of behavioral and conduct disorders: Trends and research issues. Behavioral Disorders, 22, 1. pp. 41-48.
Loeber, R., and Farrington, D. P (1998). Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P, Stouthamer-Loeber, M., and Van Kammen, W B. (1998). Antisocial behavior and mental health problems. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Mathur, S. R., Quinn, M. M., and Rutherford, R. B. (1995). Teacher-mediated behavior management strategies for children with emotional/behavioral disorders. Reston, VA: Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders.
Montague, M., Bergeron, J., and Lago-Delello, E. (1997). Using prevention strategies in general education. Focus on Exceptional Children, 29, 8. pp. 1-12.
Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools (SDFS). (1999). SDFS fact sheet #7: Imminent warning signs. Online. Available: http://www.safeschoolswichita.com/99-Ol.html.
Office of Special Education Programs. (2000). Positive behavioral supports and interventions. Online. Available: http://www.pbis.org.
Quinn, M. M., Mathur, S. R. and Rutherford, R. B. (1995). Early identification of antisocial boys: A multi-method approach. Education and Treatment of Children, 18, 3. pp. 272-281.
Ross, D. M. (1996). Childhood bullying and teasing: What school personnel, other professionals, and parents can do. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Rutherford, R. B., and Nelson, C. M. (1995). Management of aggressive and violent behavior in the schools. Focus on Exceptional Children, 27, 6. pp. 1-15.
Rutherford, R. B., Quinn, M. M., and Mathur, S. R. (1995). Effective strategies for teaching appropriate behavior to children with emotional or behavioral disorders. Reston, VA: Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders.
Seifert, K. (2000). Juvenile violence: An overview of risk factors and programs. Reaching Today’s Youth, 4, 2. pp. 60-71.
Sprague, J. R., and Walker, H. M. (2000). Early identification and intervention for youth with antisocial and violent behavior. Exceptional Children, 66, 3. pp. 367-379.
Stormont, M. (1998). Family factors associated with externalizing disorders in preschoolers. Journal of Early lntervention, 21, 3. pp. 232-251.
Studer, J. R. (2000). What the resilient child can teach us about reducing violence. Reaching Today “s Youth, 4, 2. pp. 72-76.
Sugai, G., and Homer, R. (1999). Discipline and behavioral support: Practices, pitfalls, and promises. Effective School Practices, 17, 4. pp. 10-22.
Walker, H. M., Colvin, G., and Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial behavior in school: Strategies and best practices. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Walker, H. M., Severson, H. H., and Feil, E. (1995). The Early Screening Project. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
This feature: Carney, K.J.; Mathur, S.R. and Rutherford Jr, R.B. (2000). Redirecting pathways to violence: Early identification of risk factors in children. Reaching Today’s Youth, 5, 1. pp. 7-11.