Can't find what you're looking for?

Help keep CYC-Net open-access to everyone! Donate, Subscribe or Advertise now.


Writings on a particular subject

Translate this page

Correlates of therapeutic involvement among adolescents in residential drug treatment

Josephine Hawke

Adolescents are notoriously difficult to engage and retain in treatment, which is documented by several studies (1-5) that report high dropout rates for adolescents in treatment. Compared to adults, adolescents also may require longer treatment tenures to produce similar positive treatment outcomes e.g., Burkstein (6), Hubbard et al. (2) Jainchill et al. (7), Sells and Simpson (4), Brown et al. (8). These findings underscore the need to understand the factors that affect the early engagement of adolescents in the therapeutic process.

Relatively few studies have examined treatment process among adolescents in residential drug treatment, especially those with severe psychiatric symptoms – see reviews by Burkstein (6), Catalano et al. (9), Lipsey and Wilson (10), Weisz et al. (11), Williams and Chang (5). As a result, there is a critical need for research on the therapeutic involvement (TI) among adolescent substance users in treatment. Toward this end, the current study reports on the psychometric properties of measures of therapeutic involvement that were derived from therapeutic involvement scales that have been widely used among adults and examines the correlates of therapeutic involvement among a sample of adolescents in residential drug treatment.

Therapeutic involvement and the services that clients receive during treatment are among the best predictors of treatment retention and are associated through retention to posttreatment outcomes. Models of therapeutic involvement in treatment link higher levels of therapeutic involvement to increased odds of client retention and better posttreatment outcomes, e.g., De Leon et al. (12), Joe et al. (13), Simpson et al. (14). However, most theoretical models of therapeutic involvement and treatment progress, as well as how to measure concepts like treatment engagement and counselor rapport, have stemmed from research on adult populations. Studies of adolescent populations that use proxies of therapeutic involvement such as overall treatment service intensity, types of services, unmet needs, counselor rapport, and satisfaction with treatment to examine the treatment process also find similar results among youths, e.g., Hser et al. (15).

Conceptually, therapeutic involvement refers to clients' active engagement in the therapeutic process and acceptance of their own contributions to problem maintenance and resolution. Therapeutic involvement facilitates the recovery process. Clients who participate more fully in the therapeutic process develop key recovery skills such as emotional self-regulation, effective coping, and better understanding of self--factors critical to a successful recovery process, see Winters (16). Another aspect of therapeutic involvement includes feeling a positive rapport with treatment staff; as clients become more involved in the therapeutic process, they are more likely to become more trusting of their counselors and consequently engage more in the program and its staff. Therapeutic involvement is related to other client factors that are associated with client treatment, engagement, and retention, such as gender, psychiatric symptoms, drug use severity, self-esteem, and family characteristics (6, 15-22). Joe et al. (13) found that adolescents who reported more social support at entry to residential drug treatment exhibited significantly higher levels of therapeutic involvement during treatment. Other studies document the positive impact of better social supports on treatment retention and posttreatment outcomes, e.g., Coughey et al. (23), Richter et al. (24), Siddall and Conway (25), Simpson et al. (14).

* * *


(1.) Etheridge RM, Rounds-Bryant JL, Smith JC, Hubbard RL. Drug abuse treatment and comprehensive services for adolescents. J Adolesc Res 2001; 16(6):563-589.

(2.) Hubbard RL, Cavanaugh EA, Craddock SG, Rachal JV. Characteristics, behaviors and outcomes for youth in the TOPS. In: Friedman AS, Beschner GM, eds. Treatment Services for Adolescent Substance Abusers. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1985.

(3.) Pompi KF, Resnick J. Retention in a therapeutic community for court referred adolescents and young adults. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1987; 13(3):309-325.

(4.) Sells SB, Simpson DD. Evaluation of treatment outcomes for youth in Drug Abuse Reporting Program (DARP): a follow-up study. In: Beschner GM, Friedman AS, eds. Youth Drug Abuse. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1979.

(5.) Williams RJ, Chang SY. A comprehensive and comparative review of adolescent abuse treatment outcome. Clin Psychol 2000; 7(2): 138-166.

(6.) Burkstein OG. Disruptive behavior disorders and substance abuse disorders in adolescents. J Psychoact Drugs 2000; 32(1):67-79.

(7.) Jainchill N, Hawke J, De Leon G, Yagelka J. Adolescents in TCs: one year post-treatment outcomes. J Psychoact Drugs 2000; 32:81-94.

(8.) Brown SA, Myers MG, Mott MA, Vik PW. Correlates of success following treatment for adolescent substance abuse. Appl Prey Psychol 1994; 3:61-73.

(9.) Catalano RF, Hawkins JD, Wells EA, Miller J, Brewer D. Evaluation of the effectiveness of adolescent drug abuse treatment, assessment of risks for relapse, and promising approaches for relapse prevention. Int J Addict 1990-1991; 25 (9A-10A): 1085-1140.

(10.) Lipsey MW, Wilson DB. Practical Meta-Analysis. Applied Social Research Series. Vol. 49. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications, 2001.

(11.) Weisz JR, Donenberg GR, Han SS, Weiss B. Bridging the gap between laboratory and clinic in child and adolescent psychotherapy. J Consult Clin Psychol 1995; 63(5):688-701.

(12.) De Leon G, Melnick G, Kressel D, Jainchill N. Circumstances, motivation, readiness, and suitability (the CMRS scales): predicting retention in therapeutic community treatment. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1994; 20(4):495-515.

(13.) Joe GW, Simpson DD, Broome KM. Retention and patient engagement models for different treatment modalities. Drug Alcohol Depend 1999; 57:81-87.

(14.) Simpson DD, Joe GW, Rowan-Szal GA, Greener J. Client engagement and change during drug abuse treatment. J Subst Abuse 1995; 7(1):117-134.

(15.) Hser Y, Grella CE, Hubbard RL, Hsieh S, Fletcher BW, Brown BS, Anglin D. An evaluation of drug treatments for adolescents in 4 U.S. cities. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001; 58:689-695.

(16.) Winters KC. Treating adolescents with substance use disorders: an overview of practice issues and treatment outcome. Subst Abuse 1999; 20(4):203-224.

(17.) Brown SA, Mott MA, Stewart MA. Adolescent alcohol and drug abuse. In: Walker CE, Roberts MC, eds. Handbook of Clinical Child Psychology. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992.

(18.) Drug Strategies, Inc. Treating Teens: a Guide to Adolescent Drug Programs. Washington, DC: Drug Strategies, 2003.

(19.) Jainchill N, Bhattacharya G, Yagelka J. Therapeutic communities for adolescents. NIDA Res Monogr 1995; 156:190-217.

(20.) Hawke JM, Jainchill N, De Leon G. Adolescent amphetamine users in treatment: client profiles and treatment outcomes. J Psychoact Drugs 2000; 32:95-106.

(21.) Hawke JM, Jainchill N, De Leon G. The prevalence of sexual abuse and its impact on onset of drug use among adolescents in therapeutic community drug treatment. J Child Adolesc Subst Abuse 2000; 9(3):35-49.

(22.) Hser YI, Polinsky ML, Maglione M, Anglin MD. Matching clients' needs with drug treatment services. J Subst Abuse Treat 1999; 16(4):299-305.

(23.) Coughey K, Feighan K, Cheney R, Klein G. Retention in an aftercare program for recovering women. Subst Use Misuse 1998; 33(4):917-933.

(24.) Richter S, Brown S, Mott M. The impact of social support and self-esteem on adolescent substance abuse treatment outcome. J Subst Abuse 1991; 3:371-385.

(25.) Siddall JW, Conway GL. Interactional variables associated with retention and success in residential drug treatment. Int J Addict 1988; 23(12): 1241-1254.

Hawke, J.M. (2005). Correlates of therapeutic involvement among adolescents in residential drug treatment.
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, February 2005 


Registered Non-Profit and Public Benefit Organisation in the Republic of South Africa (031-323-NPO, PBO 930015296)

P.O. Box 23199, Claremont 7735, Cape Town, South Africa
207 L'ile de Belair, Rosemere, Quebec, J7A 1A8, Canada

Board of Governors  •  Constitution  •  Funding  •  Site content and usage  •  Privacy Policy   •   Contact us



Google Play iOS App Store