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ISSN 1378-286X

Table of Contents and Abstracts

Profiles of Resilient Survivors of Institutional Abuse in Ireland
Edel Flanagan, Alan Carr, Barbara Dooley, Mark Fitzpatrick, Roisin Flanagan-Howard, Mark Shevlin, Kevin Tierney, Megan White, Margaret Daly & Jonathan Egan.

In a group of 247 survivors of institutional abuse in Ireland, 45 cases (18%) did not meet the diagnostic criteria for common DSM IV axis I or II disorders. This resilient group was compared with a poorly adjusted group of 119 participants who met the criteria for 1-3 DSM IV axis I or II diagnoses, and a very poorly adjusted group of 83 participants who had 4 or more disorders. Compared with the very poorly adjusted group, the resilient group was older and of higher socio-economic status; had suffered less sexual and emotional institutional abuse; experienced less traumatization and re-enactment of institutional abuse; had fewer trauma symptoms and life problems; had a higher quality of life and global level of functioning; engaged in less avoidant coping; and more resilient survivors had a secure adult attachment style. The resilient group differed from the poorly adjusted group on a subset of these variables. The results of this study require replication in other contexts. Therapeutic interventions with survivors should focus on facilitating the use of non-avoidant coping strategies and the development of a secure adult attachment style.

Power in the Narratives of Finnish Women and Men with an Intra Familial Child Sexual Abuse Background
Merja Laitinen

In the article the enticement process is analysed through power in the narratives of Finnish women and men who were sexually abused in their childhood nuclear families. The material of this sensitive interview study consists of in-depth interviews of twenty-one victims, seventeen women and four men, and secondary material of writings. Thematic analysis was carried out. The categorised aspects of power were named as arbitrary power, threatening power, coercive power, manipulative power, compensatory power, seductive power and caring power called love. These categorised aspects of power can be conceptualized as victimizing power which is a remarkable part of victimization in the victim's experiences. The victims need support in the breaking of the bond formed by power, violence, gender and sexuality in their personal histories, and in disentangling and interpreting its meanings. It is a question of how adult victims with their experiences are understood in the service system.

Assessing Children's Ability to Give Consent
Maurice Place & Richard Barker

This paper explores the important issue of children's ability to give consent, via the development of a focussed questionnaire relating to medical matters. A questionnaire in relation to common 'medical; issues' was developed from interviews with children and was then given to a sample of 201 children aged 11 and 12 years. The results were compared to those from a group of 245 university students. Of the three sections of the questionnaire, definitions and forced choices showed some ability to discriminate between adults and children, but using the method of ranking of choices did not. Selecting the elements with highest discriminatory power produced a scale that showed good effect size which would be worthy of further exploration and use. It is clear that determining a child's competence to consent is a challenging but necessary task. Whilst 'objective measures' cannot give a simple answer this study indicates that they have potential to assist in relation to the exercise of professional judgment in this area.

Explaining Fathers' Involvement in Child Care:
Recent Findings from Israel
Liat Kulik & Hani Tsoref

The study aimed to examine variables that explain perceptions of paternal involvement in child care among 88 Jewish Israeli women with at least one child aged 2-6. The women's perceptions of paternal involvement in child care were examined in five domains: physical care, education, showing love, playing with the children, and punishment. Based on the family systems approach, we examined the extent to which the following sets of maternal variables contribute to explaining mothers' perceptions of paternal involvement in child care: gender role ideology, maternal gatekeeping, desirability of control, perceived support from the extended family, and mothers' satisfaction with their husbands' participation in child care. The predictor variables explained the mothers' perceptions of paternal involvement in the domain of showing love to the greatest extent.