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ISSN 1378-286X
VOLUME 11 NUMBER 2-3
JUNE-SEPTEMBER 2008

Table of Contents and Abstracts

66
Agreement in foster care. Discrepancies between foster child and foster parent about the severity of problem behaviour
Stryker, J. and Van Oijen, S.

Abstract
Although studies have been found in which the agreement between foster parent and the foster child's teacher is reported, until so far no research has been found concerning the agreement of problem behaviour between foster parent and the foster child himself. Standardized questionnaires (Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report) with the same set of items were administered to the foster parent and the foster child. The same instruments were administered to a community sample of parents and children, this was the reference group.Between the family foster parent and the kinship foster parent no differences have been found in the mean severity scores and neither between the foster child in family foster care and the foster child in kinship foster care. The child as well as the foster child reported more severe problem behaviour with themselves than the parent and the foster parent do. Discrepancies are more common than exception and in foster care practice problem behaviour should be established with standardized instruments. The information from the foster parent and the foster child should be equally weighted in order to establish a diagnosis and set up treatment goals.

77
Why do foster care placements break down? A study on factors influencing foster care placement breakdown in Flanders.
Vanderfaeille, I., Van Holen, F. and Coussens, S.

Abstract
Foster care placements frequently break down. Breakdown is associated with several undesirable outcomes for the foster child, the foster parents and the child welfare system. Little is known about breakdown in Flanders. This article presents the results of a study into the prevalence of breakdown and related factors. Data on 100 foster care case files from all over Flanders were analysed. Over a period of 6 to 7 years 57% of the foster placements broke down. Older children with behavioural problems were more at risk for breakdown.

88
Effects of Exercise in Children Suffering from Depression: A Review of the Literature from 2001-2007
Tziamali, V. and Simons, J.

Abstract
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the scientific evidence on the effects of exercise in children with depression.
Methods: Search was made in the Pubmed, CINAHL, ERIC, psycINFO and Sportdiscus from 2001 up to 2007. The selection criteria were studies written in English, with a population age up to 12 years old.
Results: Seven studies were found. One of them did not meet the inclusion criteria: the main age of the study group was more than 12 years old.
Finally, 6 studies were assessed: 2 correlation studies, 2 quasi-experimental design studies, 1 study control trial, not randomized study, and 1 RCT (Randomized Control Trial) study. Conclusion: Exercise program has positive psychological effects on children with depression. Further investigation, however is needed in this field.

97
Explaining the Sense of Family Coherence among Adolescents
Kulik, L.

Abstract
The study examined the impact of two dimensions of family life on the sense of family coherence among Israeli adolescents (n = 133). The structural dimension was expressed in power relations between the adolescent's parents (as measured in equality in division of household tasks and equality in decision making). The dimension of interpersonal relations was expressed in perceived family conflict and parental support to their offspring. Parental support contributed most significantly to explaining the adolescents' sense of family coherence, followed by perceived family conflict. Equality in division of household tasks and in decision making were also found to correlate moderately with the adolescents' sense of family coherence. In general, the adolescents' sense of family coherence was high, parents were perceived as supportive, the level of perceived family conflict was low, and the division of household tasks and decision making were assessed as egalitarian.

111
Children in need and children whose rights are violated: Are they the same, and does it matter?
Axford, N.

Abstract
Need and rights both continue to be used as organising principles for thinking about child wellbeing and children's services in many western developed countries, including England and Wales. As such, it is essential to be able to be able to measure them and understand the relationship between them. Often the phrases `in need' and `violated rights' are used as if they mean something similar and refer to the same children, but do they? This article describes an attempt to operationalise need and rights for a population of children living in the community. It sets out results for the prevalence and overlap between children in need and those whose rights were considered to be violated, assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the measures that were developed and considers the implications for policy and practice.


126
The Relationship of Parenting Style to Child Outcomes in Adoptive Families of Children from
India: A Cross-National Perspective
Proctor, C. and Groza, V.

Abstract
Parents exert a major influence on the way children express personality characteristics and behaviors, regardless of whether the children are biological or adopted by the parents. A large part of parental influence is through parenting style which is often characterized as having the two components: structure and nurturance. A sample of 415 adoptive families from both India and Norway that had adopted Indian children were surveyed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Parenting Scale (PS). Results suggested that the Indian adoptive parents were more homogenous in their parenting styles than were Norwegian adoptive parents, and Indian adoptive parents reported higher scores for "clinical" behavior of their children (per the CBCL) than did Norwegian adoptive parents. Significant correlations between children's behaviors and difficult parenting styles were also detected for Indian families, but less so for Norwegian families. Children's behaviors, along with demographic variables, were also used to develop an exploratory, predictive model of adoptive parenting styles. The nature of the results is also discussed regarding the use of American-developed measures in other nations and cultures.